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About Song-pa

National Cultural Properties

  • About Song-pa
  • Cultural Remains
  • National Cultural Properties

Pungnap Toseong

  • Era
    Baekje of the Three Kingdoms era
  • Status
    Historic Site No. 11 (Jan. 21, 1963)
  • Location
    72-1, Pungnap-dong, Songpa-gu
  • Size
    Total area: 855,555 ㎡/ total length: 3.5 ㎞/ remaining length: 2.2 ㎞
  • Transportation
    [Bus] 3312, 3214, 3411, 340, 341, 361
    [Subway] Cheonho Station (Pungnaptoseong Station) on Lines 5 or 8, or Gangdong-gu Office Station on Line 8
  • This is an earthen wall, generally called Pungnap Toseong, built on a flat area around the Hangang River. The modern-day name originated from the administrative name of its location "Pungnap-ri" (in Gwangju-gun, Gyeonggi-do) in 1963 when it was designated as a historic site. The wall has a long oval shape, spreading to north and south. It originally had a circumference of 3.7 km, but only 2.2 km of the wall remains today, as the western section facing the Hangang River collapsed due to heavy rain in 1925.
  • The wall was built by heaping clayish soil and sand, piling them up layer by layer. The inner wall has masonry structures to prevent collapse and the outer wall is equipped with a moat (22 meters in width) as a primary defense line and two ditches (3 meters in width each) as a secondary defense line.
  • The remaining wall measures five to nine meters in height and the foundation of the wall has a width of 60 meters. The estimated height of the restored wall is 15 meters and it is considered that the construction of this huge fortress might have mobilized 1.38 million people a year.
  • When massive flooding occurred in 1925, a big earthen jar was discovered on the sloping ground near the western wall. The jar contained two bronze tripod cauldrons. Around the area, fragments of earthenware were excavated.
  • In 1964, part of the layers containing relics near the northern wall was investigated by Seoul National University's research team that found black burnished pottery, cylinder-shaped pottery stands, and fragments of paddling pattern pottery.
  • Afterwards, in 1997, as numerous earthenware was found at a reconstruction site during the precision investigation of the wall in 1997 by Sun Moon University's team, the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage conducted an emergency excavation.
  • As a result, remains from Baekje's palace, buildings, roads, and residental areas were discovered at the sites of Hyundai Riverville Apartment Complex, the reconstruction site of Gyeongdang Row Houses (Gyeongdang Historical Park), and the 197-beonji Mirae Village (Pungnap Baekje Culture Park). The tens of thousands of earthenware excavated from the sites are currently housed and exhibited by the Seoul (or Hanseong) Baekje Museum.
  • Pungnap Toseong is recognized as Baekje's royal fortress in consideration of the huge size of the wall, various relics excavated from the site, and the presence of royal tombs in the nearby areas including Seokchon-dong and Bangi-dong.

Seokchon-dong Ancient Tombs

  • Era
    Baekje of the Three Kingdoms era
  • Status
    Historic Site No. 243 (May 27, 1975)
  • Location
    248, Seokchon-dong, Songpa-gu
  • Size
    Total area: 49,999 ㎡
  • Transportation
    [Bus] 340, 363, 3423
    [Subway] Seokchon Station on Lines 8 or 9, or Seokchon Gobun Station on Line 9
  • These ancient tombs are believed to be the tombs of the kings and nobles during the Hanseong Baekje era (18 BC to 475 AD). The excavation survey that commenced in the 1970s has discovered seven stone mound tombs and over 30 stone coffin tombs and jar tombs. An earlier survey conducted during the time of the Japanese Occupation reported that there are more than 300 stone mound tombs in the area extending from modern-day Garak Siyeong Apartment Complex to the site of Seokchon-dong Ancient Tombs. However, only the tombs in the western part of the area survived the urban development after independence.
    Tomb No. 3, which is the largest of all, measures 45.5 meters from east to west, 43.7 meters from south to north, and 4.5 meters in height. The tomb has a square pedestal of three stories, as identified so far, and is believed to belong to King Geunchogo, who ruled Baekje during its golden age as it is of the largest size among all the tombs found in the area.
    Recently, a new tomb that has never been reported was found near Tomb No. 1. They are considered connected to each other with a huge square pedestal in the middle. Many earthenware, roof tiles, and golden accessories of the Baekje Dynasty were excavated here.
    The presence of stone mound tombs and connected tombs, which are usually found in the historic sites of Goguryeo in the Yalu River, in the Hangang River area, suggest that the ruling class of Baekje had a close relationship with Goguryeo.

Bangi-dong Ancient Tombs

  • Era
    Baekje of the Three Kingdoms era
  • Status
    Historic Site No. 270 (Dec. 28, 1979)
  • Location
    219, Ogeum-ro, Songpa-gu (125, Bangi-dong)
  • Size
    Total area: 31,154 ㎡
  • Transportation
    [Bus] 3313, 3315, 3414, 3216
    [Subway] Bangi Station on Line 5 or Songpanaru Station on Line 9
  • These ancient tombs, built on a low hill in Bangi-dong, are dated to the Three Kingdoms era (Baekje and Silla). In 1971, the joint archeological survey of the National Museum of Korea and the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage found eight tombs, of which six were investigated as part of the new town creation plan for Jamsil District in 1975.
  • The tombs are divided into stone chamber tombs with a tunnel entrance and stone coffin tombs. Tomb No. 1, which is a stone chamber tomb, has a chamber surrounded by walls heaped up with wide stones, along with an entrance on a wall and a capstone on which soil is piled up.
  • As the historic remains found in the Songpa area, including Pungnap Toseong and Mongchon Toseong Earthen Walls and Seokchon-dong Ancient Tombs have all been identified as relics of Baekje, the tombs in Bangi-dong have also been presumed to be royal tombs of Baekje. Meanwhile, since the excavation of Silla earthenware, including grayish blue mounted dishes from Tombs No. 4, 5 and 6, it has also been insisted that they are royal tombs of Silla.

Mongchon Toseong

  • Era
    Baekje of the Three Kingdoms era
  • Status
    Historic Site No. 297 (July 22, 1982)
  • Location
    424, Olympic-ro, Songpa-gu
  • Size
    Total area: 441,765 ㎡
  • Transportation
    [Bus] 340 ,341, 361, 3312, 3214, 3411, 3412, 3413
    [Subway] Mongchontoseong Station on Line 8 or Hanseong Baekje Station on Line 9
  • Mongchon Toseong is an earthen wall built by heaping up layers of clayish soil and sand using a natural hill located to the south of Pungnap Toseong. The two fortresses form the boundaries of the royal capital of Hanseong Baekje.
    Seongnaecheon Stream near the fortress originally served as a natural moat for the wall, before the current Mongchon moat was formed when Olympic Park was created, as the shape of the stream was changed due to urban development.
    Following four surveys conducted by Seoul National University in the 1980s, the Seoul Baekje Museum has been investigating the wall since 2013. The researchers found well-developed roads showing the structure of the city and sites of houses and buildings inside the wall, along with many relics such as pottery produced in Baekje, including cylinder-shaped pottery stands, soft earthenware, and paddling pattern earthenware, and other relics suggestive of exchanges with China, including glazed pottery and golden accessories.
    In the excavation surveys carried out so far, remains and relics of Goguryeo and Silla have also been discovered, which implies that the fortress was used for the purpose of defense by Goguryeo and Silla that took over the fortress after Baekje lost its territory in the Hangang River area to Goguryeo in the 5th century.
  • The relics excavated from the site of Mongchon Toseong are currently on display in Seoul National University Museum and Seoul (or Hanseong) Baekje Museum.

Samjeondo Mounment

  • Era
    17th year under the reign of King Injo of Joseon (1639)
  • Status
    Historic Site No. 101 (Jan. 21, 1963)
  • Location
    136, Samhaksa-ro (47, Jamsil-dong)
  • Total area
    200.09 ㎡
  • Size
    Height: 5.7 m (3.95 m without the pedestal)
    width: 1.4m/ made with marble
  • The monument was erected under pressure from the Qing Dynasty after Joseon was defeated in the Manchu War from 1633 to 1639 (17th year under the reign of King Injo) and forcibly signed the peace treaty. The original name of the monument was "Samjeondo Cheongtaejong Gongdeokbi". Minister of Personnel Yi Gyeong-seok created the inscription and the calligraphic work was done by O Jun. The name of the monument was written by Yeo I-jing. The monument measures 5.7 meters (3.95 meters without the pedestal) in height, 1.4 meters in width and weighs 32 tons.
  • The inscription describes why the Qing Dynasty invaded Joseon and insists that the Qing army returned to their country without harming Joseon people after their king surrendered. The inscription was inscribed in the characters of three countries. On one side of the monument, the inscription is in Chinese characters while the other side shows the inscription in Manchurian and Mongolian.
  • The monument was initially erected near Seokchon Lake. But in 1895 (the 32nd year under the reign of King Gojong), it was buried in the ground as the king found the inscription humiliating to Joseon. In 1913, under Japanese control, the monument was re-erected. After independence, in 1956, the Ministry of Education buried the monument again in the ground, considering it "a symbol of a national disgrace." It was not until 1963 that the monument saw light again. In April 2010, the monument was put back in its original place, Seoho Hill near Seokchon Lake, after being restored.